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   2020| July-December  | Volume 8 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 21, 2020

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Bhramari Pranayama as an aid to meditation: A review of classical yoga texts
BP Ushamohan, Aravind Kumar Rajasekaran, Yamini Keshavaprasad Belur, TM Srinivasan, Judu V Ilavarasu
July-December 2020, 8(2):58-68
Bhramari Pranayama is said to be an aid to attain Samadhi or contemplative absorption. It is a yogic technique that comprises attending to self-produced sound emulating a bumblebee along with breath control. The vibration of sound produced is the aid to enhance the level of consciousness to reach the state of Samadhi. In this review, an attempt has been made to understand the processing of sound-Bhramari in particular, right from the origin of the sound, with the help of ancient texts such as Saivagama texts, Yoga Upanishads, Gheranda Samhita, Hatha Yoga Pradeepika, and various other texts. Features of Bhramari Pranayama are dealt in detail with its suitability to spiritual practice, research, and its potentiality as a therapy tool.
  10,412 511 -
Vataja Unmada: Schizophrenia or Dementia or Mood Disorder with Psychosis?
Kshama Gupta, Prasad Mamidi
July-December 2020, 8(2):75-86
Unmada (a broad term which includes different psychiatric conditions under one umbrella) is characterized by the derangement of manas (mind), buddhi (cognitive functions), samgna gnana (orientation), smriti (memory), bhakti (interests), sheela (character/personality), cheshtha (psychomotor activity/behavior), and achara (conduct). Unmada is classified into five (vataja, pittaja, kaphaja, sannipataja and agantuja) types, and “Vataja Unmada” (VU) is one among them. The description of VU is available in all major Ayurvedic classical texts, and it comes under “Doshaja” (psychiatric disorder which occurs due to the aggravation of doshas) category. Studies or scientific literature on VU has been lacking, and the present work is focused on to explore this condition. The etiopathology of VU denotes deficiency of various nutritional factors such as vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids, amino acids, and antioxidants. Lacking or deficiency of these nutritional factors leads to structural and/or functional damage and degeneration of the brain (neurodegenerative or demyelinating pathology) which ultimately leads to the manifestation of different degenerative psychiatric disorders. The clinical picture of VU resembles various psychiatric or neuropsychiatric conditions such as “disorganized schizophrenia” or “hebephrenia” or “catatonia” or “dementia” or “bipolar disorder with psychotic features” or “mania with psychotic features,” or “organic or secondary psychoses.” VU is a treatable condition, and it can be managed successfully by “Panchakarma” procedures along with internal medicines.
  5,335 285 -
Pittaja Unmada: Hyperthyroidism with mania?/Psychotic or irritable mania?
Prasad Mamidi, Kshama Gupta
July-December 2020, 8(2):47-57
Bhuta vidya” (Ayurvedic psychiatry) is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda (an Indian system of medicine) and it deals with the management of various psychiatric disorders. Unmada (a psychiatric disorder) is characterized by deranged mental functions and it is classified into five types (vataja, pittaja, kaphaja, sannipataja, and agantuja). “Pittaja Unmada” (PU) is one of the five types of unmada described in all major Ayurvedic texts and it comes under “Doshaja Unmada” (psychiatric disorder which occurs due to the aggravation of doshas) category. Scientific literature on PU is scarce and the present study is focused to explore this condition. The etiopathology of PU seems to induce systemic inflammatory sequelae and also autoimmune reactions which again may lead to the manifestation of autoimmune thyroid disease or Graves' disease (GD). Signs and symptoms of PU can be classified into two groups, psychological and physiological. The psychological and physiological features of PU have shown similarity with conditions like manic episode, bipolar disorder (BD), GD, thyrotoxicosis and hyperthyroidism. PU is similar to “psychotic mania” or “mood disorder with psychotic features” or “manic episode due to general medical condition” or “BD comorbid with hyperthyroidism or GD”. PU or “bipolar affective disorder” can be managed successfully by “Virechana” followed by internal medicines.
  4,591 308 -
Indian classical dance aesthetics: A possible therapeutic application for caregivers' distress
Jayashre Ravi Hegde, Srinivasan M Thaiyar, Sridhar K Melukote, Nagendra R Hegganahalli
July-December 2020, 8(2):41-46
Emotional culture/regulation has been a center of discussions for a long time, as uncontrolled emotion may risk a person with psychosomatic ailments. In this concern, self-help techniques are in the search, which can assist in training negative emotions and achieve positive health. Study of scriptures on Indian dance classical suggests, repeated practice of ānġika (expression by physical movements), vācikā (expression, by words), and sāttvikā (expression, by intense feelings) with lyrics set to particular rāga can be a counter-measure for subjugating undesirable emotions. It may work as 'disguise bring changes in human beings,' reducing negative emotions and filling new sights. In this article, emotional brain training mediated by elements of Indian classical dance/abhinaya (expression) imbibed 'rasa' discussed as a possible emotion culture therapy procedure.
  3,565 321 -
Mind: The Source of Wellness and Illness
HR Nagendra
July-December 2020, 8(2):39-40
  3,497 357 -
The why and how of a yogasūtra commentary – A study of relevant introductory verses and nomenclatures and of 15 saṃskṛta yogasūtra commentaries
Jayaraman Mahadevan
July-December 2020, 8(2):69-74
Twenty-eight Saṃskṛta commentaries are known to exist for Yogasūtras. Most of these Saṃskṛta commentaries have remained untranslated and unstudied. Some among of them are yet to be published. Even in traditional centers of Yogic learning in the current era, we find this literature only occasionally consulted. It is necessary that the importance of these untapped or not yet well-tapped sources of Yogic knowledge be explored and highlighted. It is with this purpose that this paper has been written. To this end, the purpose and approach of these Classical Saṃskṛta commentaries that can be gleaned from the introductory verses are examined and made known through this paper. Of the known 28 commentaries 15 Saṃskṛta commentaries that have been published (most of them without translations) could be accessed for this study. The 15 Saṃskṛta commentaries are divided into two parts. (1) The principal commentary of Sage Vyāsa and its subcommentaries – 6 texts (2) Commentaries directly on Yogasūtras – 9 texts. The discussion in the paper brings out the approach and purpose of the Yogasūtra commentaries right from the 4rd century CE to the 20st century CE. This paper has revealed the nature of language used the dimensions of Yogasūtras explored and the thoroughness of approach adopted by these classical commentaries. This indicates the potential of the yet to be adequately tapped valuable resources of Yoga philosophy.
  2,694 218 -