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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Relationship between Triguna theory and well-being indicators
Pulkit Khanna, Kamlesh Singh, Surbhi Singla, Vivek Verma
July-December 2013, 1(2):69-74
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.157888  
The Indian perspective of personality deals with the tri-dimensional classification of Gunas (Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas) entailing physical, mental, and spiritual elements of personality. The present study aims to examine the relationship between Gunas and well-being indicators such as psychological capital, personality, life satisfaction, and subjective happiness. The study was conducted on two samples. Vedic Personality Inventory [1] and Mental Health Continuum-Short Form [2] were administered to both samples. The first sample consisted of 80 Indian professionals (males = 51 and females = 29) with mean age = 28.8 years (SD = 7.19) who were administered Psychological Capital Questionnaire [3] and Big-Five Personality Inventory [4] and the second sample consisted of 110 students (males = 82 and females = 28) with mean age = 21 years (SD = 2.72) who were administered Satisfaction with Life Scale [5] and Subjective Happiness Scale. [6] Across both studies, Sattva was found to be positively correlated with well-being. Rajas and Tamas were negatively correlated with well-being. Higher levels of Sattva and well-being were reported in the older age-group. Males scored higher on Rajas while no gender differences were found in well-being.
  10 17,649 1,248
REVIEW ARTICLES
Physiological effect of kriyas: Cleansing techniques
Sanjib Kumar Patra
January-June 2017, 5(1):3-5
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_31_17  
The literal meaning of Kriya is cleansing. Kriyas are categorized into six and every one of them has a particular role to play as far as their cleansing action is concerned. The practice of Kriya is quoted with its subclassification in Hatha Yoga pradipika and Gheranda samhita. However, in this theoretical scientific article, all varieties of Kriyas described in Hatha Yoga have been explained with its physiological effects. Evidence-based findings are limited using Kriyas as the interventions; therefore, author has made an attempt to put the observed finding and unpublished observations following the practice of each Kriya technique.
  9 29,624 1,592
Gandharva grahonmada: Bipolar disorder with obsessive-compulsive disorder/mania?
Kshama Gupta, Prasad Mamidi
January-June 2017, 5(1):6-13
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_17_17  
Gandharva grahonmada (GG) is one among 18 types of bhootonmada or grahonmada. Bhootonmada comprises a vast category of psychiatric problems which are assumed to be caused by affliction of evil spirits or super natural powers or extra terrestrial forces or idiopathic factors. The present study aims at better understanding of GG and its clinical applicability to the present day psychiatry practice. GG is characterized by Chandam/Teekshnam (anger/aggressiveness/irritability/hostility/violence), Saahasikam (risk taking behaviour/agitation/increased psychomotor activity), Gambheera and Adhrushya (grandiosity /agitation), Nrutyantam, gaayantam, mukha vaadyaani kurvantam (dancing, singing and playing music), Pulina vanaantaropasevi, hrishtaatma, prahasati, haasya kathaanuyogam (engaged in pleasurable activities/euphoria), Snaana, maalya, anulepana, dhoopa, gandha ratim (flamboyant appearance / obsessive compulsive symptoms), Shringaara leelaabhiratim (hyper sexuality), Rakta vastram (wearing red colour garments), Paana ratim (alcohol abuse), Svaachaaram (virtuous conduct), Chaaru chaalpa shabdam and alpa vyavahaaram (hypomania/mixed episode/mania with depressive symptoms) etc features. These features of GG show similarity with mania or hypomania or bipolar disorder (BD) comorbid with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Samrambha grahonmada and hasana grahonmada are two subtypes of GG which also resembles with mania. 'Samrambha grahonmada' resembles with 'irritable/aggressive mania' whereas 'hasana grahonmada' denotes 'grandiose / elated mania'.
  7 10,081 504
BRIEF REPORT
Dispositional mindfulness and its relation to impulsivity in college students
Sasidharan K Rajesh, Judu V Ilavarasu, TM Srinivasan
January-June 2013, 1(1):49-52
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.123292  
Context: Impulsivity is a fundamental component, consistently associated with understanding and diagnosis of various neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. Aims: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between self-reported dispositional mindfulness and impulsivity in a sample of college students. Settings and Design: This is a correlational study using a sample of 370 undergraduate students (226 females and 144 males) from three colleges, in Kerala, India. Participants age ranged from 18 to 26 years with a mean age of 19.47 years (standard deviation = 1.46). Subjects and Methods: Participants were given questionnaire packets including demographic details, mindful attention awareness scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale version 11 (BIS-11) and General Health Questionnaire-12. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlations were used to examine the association between mindfulness and Impulsivity. Partial correlations were examined between impulsivity and mindfulness measures while controlling for psychological distress. Results: Dispositional mindfulness was negatively correlated with psychological distress (r = −0.40, P < 0.01) and BIS-11 scores (BIS total: r = 0.50; attentional: r = 0.44; motor: r = −0.23 non-planning: r = 0.25, P < 0.01). Relationship remained significant between mindfulness and impulsivity while after controlling for psychological distress. Conclusions: Dispositional mindfulness related to the ability to refrain from impulsive behavior in the presence of psychological distress
  6 10,408 829
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Kaphaja unmada: Myxedema psychosis?
Kshama Gupta, Prasad Mamidi
July-December 2015, 3(2):31-39
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_10_16  
Unmada (a broad term which denotes various psychiatric problems under one umbrella) is a major psychiatric illness described in all Ayurvedic classics which is characterized by deranged mental functions. The etymological meaning of Unmada is “a state of disturbed mental functions.” Kaphaja Unmada is one among the five types of Unmada, which is caused by the aggravation of Kapha dosha. The description of Kaphaja Unmada is available in all classical texts of Ayurveda along with its symptomatology. Previous works have correlated ”Kaphaja Unmada” with “depressive disorder”/“depression”/“major depressive disorder.” The symptomatology of Kaphaja Unmada and depressive disorder is 70% similar, but some of the signs and symptoms of Kaphaja Unmada such as laala sighanaka sravanam, swapna nityata, svayathuranane, shukla stimita malopadigdha akshata, naari priyata, chhardi, balam cha bhukte, ushnasevi, nakhadi shauklyam, kasa, and raatrau bhrisham are not seen in depressive disorders and they denote hypersomnia, puffiness of face, pernicious or megaloblastic anemia, hypersexual behavior, vomiting, nocturnal and postprandial aggravation, cold intolerance, depression, and dementia conditions which are due to the underlying hypothyroidism instead of depression only. These signs and symptoms can be explained in a better way when Kaphaja Unmada is compared with myxedema/hypothyroidism with depression. The present study considers that Kaphaja Unmada is more similar with hypothyroidism with depression/myxedema madness/myxedema psychosis than primary depression/typical depression alone.
  6 9,950 513
Guru, vriddha, rishi and siddha grahonmaada: Geschwind syndrome?
Prasad Mamidi, Kshama Gupta
July-December 2015, 3(2):40-45
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_5_16  
Background: “Bhuta vidya” (Ayurvedic psychiatry) is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda. The person afflicted with bhuta/graha gets grahonmaada/bhutonmaada and he will exhibit superhuman abilities or qualities without any nown/visible etiopathology. Among the 18 types of bhutonamaada's explained by Vagbhata, “Guru, Vriddha, Rishi and Siddha grahonmaada” (GVRSG) is one. Till date, there is no clear understanding about etiopathology, symptomatology, and management of GVRSG. No works have been conducted on this topic. Aim and Objective: The present article aims at better understanding of GVRSG. Discussion: Geschwind syndrome is characterized by hypergraphia, hyper religiosity, hyposexuality, circumstantiality, and intensified mental life. People like Guru, Vriddha, Rishi, and Siddha in ancient India are known to have qualities such as, “knowledge,” “teaching,” “moralistic,” “disciplined,” “religious,” “ethical,” “experienced,” “having super natural owers,” “counselor,” “guide,” and “following celibacy,” which resembles with the symptomatology of Geschwind syndrome such as, hyper-religiosity, hypergraphia, hyposexuality, emotional liability, grandiosity, and obsessive-compulsive like symptoms. Conclusion: There is marked similarity found between GVRSG and Geschwind syndrome and Ayurvedic diagnosis of Guru, Vriddha, Rishi, and Siddha bhootonmada/grahonmada is suitable for Geschwind syndrome.
  6 7,056 427
REVIEW ARTICLES
Vetaala Grahonmada: Parkinson's disease with obsessive-compulsive disorder?/autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder?
Prasad Mamidi, Kshama Gupta
July-December 2017, 5(2):35-41
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_28_17  
Bhoot vidya (ayurvedic psychiatry) is one of the specialties of Ayurveda and it deals with various psychiatric conditions caused by affliction of evil spirits or mythological personalities. Unmada (a broad term which consists of various psychiatric problems) is a major psychiatric condition described in Ayurvedic classical texts and it is characterized by deranged mental functions. Bhootonmada is caused by affliction of evil spirits or supernatural powers or extraterrestrial forces. Vetaala grahonmada (VG) is one among the 18 types (deva, asura, rishi, guru, vruddha, siddha, pitru, gandharva, yaksha, rakshasa, sarpa, brahma rakshasa, pishacha, kushmanda, nishada, preta, maukirana, and vetala) of bhutonmada. Till date, there were no studies available on VG, and the present study aims at better understanding along with the clinical applicability of VG. VG is characterized by Satyavaadinam (truthfulness/honesty), Parivepanam (tremors), Dhoopa gandha maalya ratim (fond of perfumes and garlands), and Ati nidraalum (excessive sleepiness). Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally regarded as a movement disorder. Behavioral and psychological symptoms or neuropsychiatric syndromes associated with PD are frequent. They include anxiety, depression, psychosis, sleep, sexual and impulse control disorders, apathy, and cognitive dysfunction. The various features of VG have shown similarity with PD comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and excessive daytime sleepiness. VG also has shown similarity with various other conditions such as “autoimmune neuropsychiatric movement disorders.” VG is having similarity with a comorbid condition of PD with OCD.
  5 5,827 430
REVIEW ARTICLE
Role of junk DNA in the liberation of soul
YV Subba Rao
July-December 2015, 3(2):23-30
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.205522  
Just as DNA is for life so also it is for liberation. Vedic Astrology (Vedānga) states that Moon (manokāraka) significator of mind, Jupiter (Gnānakāraka) significator of wisdom, and Saturn (Vairāgyakāraka) significator of renunciation, mostly in conjunction in natal chart, play a significant role in a native obtaining liberation of soul from bondage. It is found that the cosmic counterparts of the DNA molecules in the supercoiling of DNA and Junk DNA are plausibly responsible for a native to obtain liberation from the death-birth cycle. This has been discussed in this paper with case studies of two enlightened souls.
  3 10,369 1,527
REVIEW ARTICLES
Triguna as personality concept: Guidelines for empirical research
Judu V Ilavarasu, Sarasvati Mohan, Alex Hankey
January-June 2013, 1(1):15-20
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.123287  
In the East triguna is considered an important personality concept. Compared to western models of personality, triguna is less popular globally. Even in the East, research on triguna is scarce. Interest in the area peaked in the 1970s when theoretical works led to the development of several questionnaires. However, practical use of these tools failed to take off. Triguna research remains sporadic, strongly suggesting a lack of channelized work. The new tools, which were developed are also not much used. Apart from psychology, in recent times, management research has taken to investigating triguna and other related constructs like karma yoga. Considering the current situation of triguna research, if guidelines were drawn up, researchers would have a direction to guide their studies, at least for coming few years and be able to contribute incrementally to the field. This paper is presented in light of these considerations. We discuss the concept of triguna, characteristics of a successful personality theory and challenges in triguna research, in light of which we propose a set of eight guidelines to assist future research in the field. In addition, we discuss some of the new tools emerging from mainstream psychology, which may also be used in triguna research. Hopefully, we may look forward to some major landmarks of evidences for the triguna construct, over the coming period of time.
  3 21,330 2,052
Vishesha or Upa Grahonmadas: Various Psychiatric and Neuropsychiatric Conditions
Prasad Mamidi, Kshama Gupta
January-June 2021, 9(1):23-31
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_8_20  
Bhutavidya (Ayurvedic psychiatry) is one among the eight specialties of Ayurveda (an ancient Indian system of medicine). Bhutavidya deals with the diseases (psychiatric or neuropsychiatric) caused by “bhuta” or “graha” (idiopathic factors) and their management. Unmada (broad term which includes various psychiatric conditions) is a disease characterized by deranged mental functions. “Bhutonmada” (psychiatric conditions caused by idiopathic factors) is a type of unmada caused by affliction of “bhuta” or “graha.” Eighteen types of bhutonmada are explained in samhita's (ancient Ayurvedic texts). Previous works have explored these 18 grahonmadas and compared them with various psychiatric and neuropsychiatric conditions. Vishesha or Upa grahonmadas are the subtypes of these 18 grahonmadas, and their description is found only in “Ashtanga sangraha” (Ayurvedic textbook of medicine written by Vriddha Vagbhata). Description of 16 “Vishesha” or “Upa grahonmadas” is available in “Ashtanga sangraha.” Till date, no studies have been conducted on Vishesha grahonmadas, and the present study aims at exploring Vishesha grahonmadas with contemporary psychiatric conditions. Ayurvedic literature related to “Vishesha grahonmadas” has been collected from major classical Ayurvedic texts and from their commentaries. Electronic databases “Google” and “Google Scholar” have been searched to find out the relevant studies using appropriate keywords. Sixteen Vishesha grahonmadas explained in Ashtanga sangraha have shown resemblance with various psychiatric and neuropsychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, schizophrenia, frontotemporal dementia, Tourette's syndrome, extra pyramidal movement disorders, temporal lobe epilepsy, autism, personality disorders, Parkinson's disease, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The contemporary perspective of ancient psychiatric concepts as demonstrated in the present article provides new insights and paves way further studies.
  3 3,389 333
Pitru grahonmada: Vitamin B12 deficiency-induced neuropsychiatric manifestations?
Kshama Gupta, Prasad Mamidi
July-December 2021, 9(2):59-66
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_16_20  
Unmada” is a broad psychopathological entity of Ayurveda that includes various psychiatric and neuropsychiatric conditions. Pitru grahonmada (PG) is one among 18 types of bhutonmada or grahonmada, and it is caused by affliction of “pitru graha” (an evil spirit or super natural power or extraterrestrial force or an idiopathic factor). Previous studies have established the similarity between grahonmadas and different psychiatric and neuropsychiatric conditions. No studies have been conducted on PG till date. The aim and objective of the present study is to explore PG with the help of contemporary psychiatric literature. Ayurvedic literature related to PG has been collected from major classical Ayurvedic texts and from their commentaries. PG is characterized by features such as “Aprasanna drishtim and Apashyantam” (vision loss or abnormalities), “Chala netra pakshmaanaam” (abnormal eye movements), “Shankitekshanam” (suspicious looks), “Apasavya vastram” (confusion or memory loss or disorientation), “Deena vadanam” (depression), “Anannabhilasha or Arochaka or Avipaaka or Alpaagni or Manda paavaka” (various gastrointestinal tract abnormalities), “Pratihata vaacham or Skhalat vaacham” (speech abnormalities), “Nidraalu” (excessive sleepiness), “Samsushka taalukam” (oral manifestations of Vitamin B12 deficiency), “Shaantaatma” (catatonia or depression or reduced psycho-motor activity) and “Tila, guda, maamsa, and paayasa priyam” (cravings for sugar and meat). These features of PG have shown striking similarity with Vitamin B12 deficiency-induced neuropsychiatric conditions. PG has shown similarity with various neuropsychiatric manifestations induced by Vitamin B12 deficiency which needs to be established by further studies.
  3 5,322 479
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Impact of yama and niyama on psychospiritual factors in young adults: A randomized controlled trial
Wen Xu, R Kumar Itagi, M Srinivasan Thaiyar
January-June 2021, 9(1):32-39
DOI:10.4103/ijoyppp.ijoyppp_17_20  
Background: The ethical principles of yoga enunciated in yama and niyama are not well known and are not usually presented to students of yoga. Aim: The goal of this study was to evaluate the benefits of yama and niyama in psychospiritual well-being in young adults. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 participants were randomly assigned to the yama-niyama group and control group. Yama-niyama group underwent three months intervention and one-month follow-up assessment. Control group attended regular classes during intervention time. Participants completed baseline and post-intervention of Vedic Personality Inventory questionnaire and cakra alignment measures. Results: The outcome measures in the yama-niyama group showed a signifi'cant difference in sattva (P<0.001), rajas (P<0.001), tamas (P<0.001) and cakrās (P<0.001) after intervention compared to the control group. In the follow-up, sattva (P=0.018) and rajas (P=0.018) showed a significant difference compared to the control group. Further, in yama-niyama group showed a significant increase in sattva (P<0.001) and cakrās were significantly better aligned (P<0.001), whereas rajas (P<0.001) and tamas (P<0.001) showed a significant decrease after intervention. In the follow-up, sattva (P<0.001) showed a significant increase and cakrās were significantly better aligned (P<0.001), whereas rajas (P<0.001) and tamas (P<0.001) showed a significant decrease. Conclusion: The findings show that young adults may advance in psychospiritual growth with proper introduction to yama and niyama in their practices. The study also fills a gap in yoga research which often neglects this foundation of psychospiritual practices in yoga.
  2 6,897 563
Application of gas discharge visualization technique for assessing effects of mobile phone-induced electromagnetic field on subtle energy levels of teenagers and protective value of yoga intervention
Praerna Bhargav, Vandana Suresh, Alex Hankey, Hemant Bhargav
July-December 2016, 4(2):36-41
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_1_17  
Background: We found quantifiable effects of mobile phone-induced radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) on subtle energy levels of teenagers through gas discharge visualization technique in a previous randomized controlled study. The present study assesses potential protective value of simple and well-known Yoga technique of Nadishuddhi pranayama on RF-EMF-induced changes on subtle energy levels of teenagers. Materials and Methods: We enrolled thirty healthy right-handed healthy teenagers (15 males and 15 females) in the age range of 16.30 ± 2.26 years from educational institutes in Bengaluru. Each participant was assigned to four randomly allocated conditions on separate days: (1) (mobile phone in “ON” mode at right ear [MPON]), (2) (mobile phone in “OFF” mode [MPOF]), (3) (MPON mode with Nadishuddhi Pranayama), and (4) (MPOF mode with Nadishuddhi Pranayama). Subtle energy levels of various organs of the participants were measured using gas discharge visualization camera Pro device, in single-blind condition, at two points of time: (1) baseline and (2) after 15 min of MPON/MPOF/MPON with Nadishuddhi/MPOF with Nadishuddhi exposure, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni adjustment was applied to perform the data analysis using SPSS version 10.0. Results: After MPON condition, the following subtle energy variables showed reduction in energy levels as compared to MPOF: (1) integral area, (2) cerebral zone cortex, (3) liver, 4) spleen, (5) right kidney, (6) pancreas, (7) thyroid, and (6) jejunum. Adding simultaneous practice of Nadishuddhi to MPON condition did not enhance subtle energy in any of the organs. Conclusion: The subtle energy-reducing effects of MPON condition on various organs, as compared to sham, were consistent with our previous study. Simultaneous practice of Nadishuddhi pranayama for 15 min, during RF-EMF exposure, did not resist reduction of subtle energy levels. Other yoga-based techniques such as meditations may be explored in future studies.
  2 6,863 443
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Immediate role of two yoga-based breathing technique on state anxiety in patients suffering from anxiety disorder: A self as control pilot study
Narottam Kumar, Balaram Pradhan
January-June 2017, 5(1):18-23
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_9_16  
Objective: To evaluate immediate effect of Nadisodhana Pranayama on state anxiety in patients suffering with anxiety disorder. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on psychiatric participants (male = 10; female = 12) with age range of 18 to 49 years, age mean ± standard deviation (30.22 ± 09.08). The baseline data were used. The self as control design was followed participants participated in Nadisodhana and Breath awareness for 10 min. the same time for two consecutive days. The sequence of the session was assigned randomly to the participants. The state anxiety was assessed using state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) before and immediately after each session. Results: Within-group comparison showed that due to alternate nostril breathing and breath awareness, STAI scores reduced or significant reduction of STAI scores in both groups (P < 0.001). In between-group comparison baseline was statistically matched (P = 0.596) whereas after intervention there was significant difference in STAI scores (P < 0.001; Mann–Whitney test). The percentage change of state anxiety was 25% after Nadisodhana whereas 8% after breath awareness. Conclusion: This pilot study shows that both Nadisodhana and breath awareness are effective mind-body practices to reduce state anxiety in patients suffering from anxiety neurosis. However, the immediate effect in reducing state anxiety was better after Nadisodhana (25%) compared to breath awareness (8%).
  2 8,759 593
The chakra system as a bio-socio-psycho-spiritual model of consciousness: Anahata as heart-centered consciousness
Robert Beshara
January-June 2013, 1(1):29-33
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.123289  
Today, to most scientific materialists the seat of consciousness is the brain. According to the dominant strand of this reductionist monist view, consciousness - and naturally the mind of which it is a part - is an epiphenomenon of the brain. This is a metaphysical assumption and as far as I know, there has not been any proof as of yet to support such a claim (aka the hard problem of consciousness). According to scientism, the mind is an illusion, albeit, a useful one from an evolutionary standpoint. This illusion - which strangely enough is not too different from the Hindu notion of maya - has helped us not only survive for thousands of years but also adapt more quickly to our environment. Even though our holographic-like representations of physical reality or the noumenal world are not accurate they are close enough to the-thing-itself that we have succeeded to control and abuse the planet and its resources while dominating other species along the way, to say the least. Why is this the case? Are we too much in our heads? Are we too caught up in our emotions? Clearly, there is an imbalance within and without us for which we are primarily responsible; the results of this global imbalance are such things as threats to biodiversity, war, poverty, and health issues to name but a few. We are using the wrong lenses metaphysically speaking and that is partially why we have been distorting reality, be it monism or dualism. The contributions of science ever since the Scientific Revolution are immense and grateful to them we are, especially in terms of their technological application. However, the dark side is that industrialization has made us more dehumanized and social media has made us more disconnected in the real world. The argument here is not whether technology is good or bad, but rather the question is how can we create eco-friendly technologies (from our cars to our cities) that are harmonious with nature in the ultimate or nondual sense. So what is missing? Perhaps the will is. Maybe we have been blinded by our selfishness to the extent that we cannot see beyond our desires. The paradigm shift hinted at here is one that is reminiscent of the Buddhist concept of the Middle Way, the goal being global coherence through individual transformation, which cannot happen unless there is balance in the first place and the key is balancing the heart.
  2 14,954 1,334
The concept of Jnana, Vijnana and Prajnana according to Vedanta philosophy*
MK Sridhar
January-June 2015, 3(1):5-8
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.161024  
The words such as jnana, vijnana and prajnana have wide and multifarious meanings in the Hindu thoughts and especially in the Vedanta philosophy. They just does not mean any kind of knowledge but a systematic methodology and encompass a plethora of disciplines, be it in the realms of art, science or philosophy. The aim and purpose of such knowledge are to help the individual in attaining happiness and welfare in this world leading to salvation. The goals of every Hindu, nay, any seeker revolves around the proper understanding and perceiving the above concepts and implementing them personally for a meaningful and purposeful living in this world and the world hereafter. This paper examines the etymology of the words jnana, vijnana and prajnana, their connotations and denotations from the domains of grammar and Vedanta philosophy. Jnana stands for knowledge, vijnana for the systematic study of a branch of learning, science, intellectual awareness and consciousness. Prajnana stands for profound knowledge, wisdom, ultimate reality or Brahman. These words are inter-related and connote a higher meaning in the realm of spiritualism. This paper also attempts to compare these concepts from the standpoint of modern scientific methodology and consciousness debates.
  2 24,925 1,210
Transformative effects of yoga nidra on hedonic and eudemonic dimensions of well-being: A qualitative study in trainee teachers
Bhalendu Suryakant Vaishnav, Smruti Bhalendu Vaishnav, Vibha Suryakant Vaishnav, Neepa D Bharucha, Jagdish R Varma
January-June 2019, 7(1):17-23
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_14_18  
Context: Incorporation of educational measures which enhance well-being is one of the priority needs of mainstream education in the 21st century. Yoga nidra is an ancient Indian practice which enhances well-being through the release of stress on physical, emotional, and mental planes of one's being through the creation of an experiential state of inner awareness with simultaneous detachment. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess qualitative effects of yoga nidra on physical, emotional, cognitive, and spiritual dimensions of well-being in trainee teachers. Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven students received yoga nidra sessions over for 3 months. About 86% of students (n = 66) submitted their diary notes containing their observations and experiences about yoga nidra sessions, which were thematically analyzed. Results: Key observations captured from 475 individual observation notes were experience of quietude, freshness, and relief from fatigue, clarity of thoughts, enhanced concentration, memory and reduction of anxiety, depression, and worries. As the weeks of the study progressed, the transformative effects of yoga nidra were noticed in the forms of enhanced capacity for self-reflection, self-awareness, and behavioral modification. Conclusion: Yoga nidra sessions enhance hedonic and eudemonic dimensions of well-being through minimizing negative emotions such as stress and anxiety, enhancing positive emotions such as happiness, enthusiasm, and alertness, and bringing about an experience of cognitive, emotional and behavioral stability, and clarity. It can be considered as a useful tool for enhancing well-being.
  2 5,995 508
REVIEW ARTICLES
Pancha Indriya Buddhi: Association cortices
Kshama Gupta, Prasad Mamidi
July-December 2018, 6(2):61-65
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_10_17  
Ayurveda considers Buddhi (intellect/cognition) as a separate entity which works in collaboration with the Manas (mind). Buddhi provides confirmative knowledge after proper analysis. Buddhi is considered as the organ of perception. Pancha indriya buddhis (Chakshu buddhi, Shrotra buddhi, Ghraana buddhi, Rasana buddhi, and Sparshana buddhi) are the basic intelligence or knowledge which are responsible to generate pancha indriya gyana (knowledge related to five sensory organs). In Ayurveda, till date, no studies are available on Pancha indriya buddhis. Pancha indriya buddhi and their clinical significance have been underexplored. “Chakshu buddhi” helps in seeing and perceiving different objects with different shapes, colors, and sizes. Chakshu buddhi's functions resemble with the functions of visual association area of the brain. “Shrotra buddhi” helps to hear and understand the sounds as well as speech and its functions resemble with the functions of auditory association area. “Ghraana buddhi” helps to perceive or identify different types of smells, and its functions are equivalent to the functions of piriform cortex, amygdale, and orbitofrontal regions of the brain. “Rasana buddhi” helps to perceive taste, and its functions are similar to insula/operculum or anterior temporal lobe. To perceive the stimuli of touch and to recognize the objects by touch ‘Sparshana buddhi’ is essential. The functions of Sparshana Buddhi are equivalent to sensory association cortex. Functions of Pancha indriya buddhis resemble with the functions of association cortices of the brain and the pathological states of indriya buddhis denote different types of Agnosia.
  2 10,656 618
Women in the Rig Vedic age
Naorem Jiteswori Devi, Kambhampati Subrahmanyam
January-June 2014, 2(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.157985  
The role of women in orienting life and family were elucidated in Rig Vedic age. They enjoyed independence and self-reliance. Besides their domestic role, they had every access to education with tremendous potential to realize the highest truths. Many of them were seers who had an intellectual and spiritual depth. Women played an important role in maintaining the economic status of the family with the occupation of spinning, weaving, and needlework. Widow's remarriage was permitted in Rig Vedic society as evidenced in the funeral hymn in the Rig Veda. Caste system in the society did not seem to be strict. During this time inter-caste marriages took place in society. Women learned several disciplines that included vocal and instrumental music and dance. Women were also allowed to learn martial pursuits. Respect and value of the women in the Vedic society not merely as household mistress but also as individuals with great potential to contribute to human society were revealed.
  2 38,883 1,331
Review of Rāgās and its Rasās in Indian music and its possible applications in therapy
Nagarajan Karuna, Thaiyar M Srinivasan, HR Nagendra
January-June 2013, 1(1):21-28
DOI:10.4103/2347-5633.123288  
The imbalances between our outlook toward life and insight cause stress. This could most of the times result in psychosomatic ailments. By modification of our innermost attitude, we can bring peace, satisfaction and comfort irrespective of the external environment. There are many systems of healing for countering perceived stress, which helps to manage stress as well as its impact on the systems of the body. In this paper, an attempt is made to review the Indian Rāgās and the interwoven agreeable rasās (aesthetic mood) in them. The willful submission to the notes of the music and the willingness to release the negative thought patterns may be helpful in healing physically. Based on many research made on the metaphysical causation of disease, we have attempted to list particular melody or rāgās depicting a particular aesthetic mood, which could help to heal a particular disease.
  2 14,774 970
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Efficacy of vedic mathematics and yogic breathing in school children: A pilot study
Vasant Venkatraman Shastri, Alex Hankey, Bhawna Sharma, Sanjib Patra
January-June 2016, 4(1):16-23
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_3_16  
Background: Anxiety can cause problems in examination performance, particularly mathematics. This study aimed to compare two methods of reducing math anxiety in 8th–10th standards, Yoga pranayama and Vedic mathematics (VM). We report a randomized controlled trial comparing effects of these on working memory, math anxiety, and cognitive flexibility. Subjects and Methods: Forty higher secondary students, resident at Sri Sai Angels School Chikkamagaluru were randomly assigned to Yogic Breathing, VM, and Jogging (JG) groups with 14, 13, and 13 children, respectively. Intervention: Children in Yoga breathing (YB) and VM groups attended 7-days' workshop on Pranayama and VM, respectively. Others went JG every day. Assessments: Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised, STROOP test, Children's Cognitive Assessment Questionnaire, and digit span test were administered pre and post the intervention. Analysis: SPSS-17 was used for nonparametric pre-post comparison tests (Wilcoxon) and group comparisons tests (Mann–Whitney). Results: Math anxiety decreased most in VM (−11.77 ± 10.47; P < 0.01). Others: YB (−4.08 ± 4.99; P < 0.05); JG, (−3.75 ± 16.94). Changes in cognitive flexibility and reaction to cognitive stress were VM (++9.77 ± 5; P < 0.001); YB (+5.38 ± 5.38; P < 0.01) and JG (+8.58 ± 9.91; P < 0.05). Self-defeating cognition scores decreased in YB (−1.77 ± 1.83; P < 0.01) and VM (−1.38 ± 3.2), but not JG (+0.67 ± 1.44). Digit span scores were similar in all groups. Conclusion: VM and YB showed small improvement in cognitive skills and decrease in math anxiety compared to JG. The study suggests that a 7-day VM workshop can decrease math anxiety, which might help enhance cognitive skills. Calming effects of pranayama practices are the probable cause for YB group improvements.
  1 6,145 476
Quantification of electrodermal activity variation across human fingers: Toward a scientific basis of mudras
Ravali Rupaa Amba, Manivannan Muniyandi
July-December 2017, 5(2):48-52
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_4_17  
Context: Fingertips when mechanically stimulated can elicit varied responses in the human body as in Mudras. Each fingertip is considered as a terminal of one of the ten meridian (or energy) channels. Can meridians be quantified? Aims: Electrodermal activity (EDA) of skin is an easy and inexpensive biosignal to acquire and is considered to be a good indicator of psychophysiological state of human health. Although EDA has been studied before, EDA across fingers has never been studied before, and it could be used to prove or disprove the theory of meridian terminals in the fingers. Settings and Design: This study was a randomized, event-based trials. Materials and Methods: A device to measure EDA of ten fingers simultaneously has been developed. Event-based experiments, involving external stimuli given to the participant due to which there may be an onset of skin conductance response (SCR), were conducted on seven voluntary participants. Continuous decomposition analysis is used to decompose data into continuous tonic and phasic activity. Statistical Analysis Used: Several time domain and frequency domain parameters have been extracted from the EDA and compared against different fingers. Results: The number of SCRs and the latency values of SCRs occurring are varying from finger to finger from 1.029 to 3.5 s. Values of SCR amplitudes and average phasic driver and maximum value of phasic activity are also varying which implies different levels of activity in each finger. Conclusions: It was observed that there is a marked difference across fingers in various metrics used to characterize EDA, and it is likely that fingertips indeed represent the terminal of meridian channels.
  1 6,459 502
REVIEW ARTICLE
Role of jalaneti and pranayama in allergic rhinitis with asthma
Shruti Agnihotri, Surya Kant, Veerendra Kumar Verma, Satyendra Kumar Mishra, Sarika Pandey
January-June 2016, 4(1):3-7
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_15_15  
Allergic respiratory conditions are a major public health challenge worldwide. Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation. It is defined by the history of respiratory symptoms such as wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and cough that vary over time and in intensity, together with variable expiratory airflow limitation. Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide, with an estimated 300 million affected individuals. It is also an associated disease with allergic rhinitis (AR). AR is characterized by nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, itching of the nose, and/or postnasal discharge. It is also closely related to asthma and 10%–40% of people with rhinitis have concomitant asthma Researches in this field are very limited; therefore, this review article will be helpful in updating the knowledge about disease and drugs that can help in satisfying the attending people. Yoga is one of the complementary medicines which are helpful in relaxing the muscles, releasing anxiety, improving blood circulation, respiration, etc. Yoga uses a holistic approach to promote positive health for centuries. A regular practice of jalaneti and pranayama provides the relaxation and sound sleep and works as healing therapy for AR and asthma
  1 19,059 716
Paryakula drishti of Unmada: Deficits of smooth pursuit eye movements and anti-saccades in schizophrenia
Kshama Gupta, Prasad Mamidi
July-December 2016, 4(2):30-35
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_5_17  
Bhuta vidya (Ayurvedic psychiatry) is one of the eight specialties of Ayurveda. Unmada is a broad term which includes various psychiatric disorders described in modern psychiatry. The classification, etiology, pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, prognosis, and treatment of Unmada are available in all Ayurvedic classical texts. Abnormal eye movements such as “Paryakula drishti” (abnormal eye movements which denotes excitement or confusion or agitation)/“Chakshusho aakulata” (abnormal eye movements denotes confusion or perplexity)/“Chakshusho aswasthatvam” (abnormal eye movements) and “Chakshushoscha apasarpanam” (abnormal tracking) are mentioned among various signs and symptoms of Unmada. In Ayurveda, till date, no studies have been conducted, and no focus has been given on these abnormal eye movements of Unmada. The present study aims at understanding of these abnormal eye movements mentioned in Unmada with the help of modern research and literature. Abnormal smooth pursuit eye movements, decreased pursuit gain, increased saccadic frequency, increased anticipatory saccades, and anti-saccade errors are well-documented in schizophrenia patients. It seems that ancient Indian Ayurvedic sages had tremendous observational and clinical skills by which they were able to detect abnormal eye movements in the patients suffering from various psychiatric disorders thousands of years before. Various abnormal eye movements such as smooth pursuit eye movements deficits, abnormal saccadic eye movements, and other abnormal eye movements in schizophrenia resembles with “Paryakula drishti/Chakshusho aakulata/Chakshusho apasarpanam” of Unmada. Currently available research based on abnormal eye movements in schizophrenia supports the Ayurvedic view.
  1 5,172 341
REVIEW ARTICLES
Sukshma sareera (Astral Body) beyond our comprehension
Sanjib Patra
July-December 2017, 5(2):29-34
DOI:10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_32_17  
Sukshma sareera is subtle and cannot be seen to our naked eyes. The structure of Pranamya (astral sheath) Manomaya kosha (mental sheath) and Vijnanamaya Kosha (wisdom) constitute Sukshma sareera. It is functional and can be understood as survival and feeling of pleasure and pain, hibernation, running away from danger, anticipating before the occurrence of an accident, bodily resistance against harsh environment, etc. In this theoretical article, we shall be discussing the structure and function of Pranamaya kosha which is a key structure of our Sukshma sareera.
  1 16,398 787
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