Year : 2017 | Volume
: 5 | Issue : 2 | Page : 27--28
Concept of pure science
Ramachandra G Bhat
Vice Chancellor, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
Ramachandra G Bhat
Vice Chancellor, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Bengaluru, Karnataka
|How to cite this article:|
Bhat RG. Concept of pure science.Int J Yoga - Philosop Psychol Parapsychol 2017;5:27-28
|How to cite this URL:|
Bhat RG. Concept of pure science. Int J Yoga - Philosop Psychol Parapsychol [serial online] 2017 [cited 2023 Jun 5 ];5:27-28
Available from: https://www.ijoyppp.org/text.asp?2017/5/2/27/225628
Often we listen to usages such as Pure Science, Science and Technology (S & T). Such of any modern-day concepts of S & T can be understood and practiced better by an individual who tries to understand them at a deeper level of conceptual clarity by the means of oriental knowledge. Indian knowledge of yore is an eternal storehouse known for its rich tradition of S & T.
The richer Indian scientific temperament and ideas are very well enunciated and confirmed by two great Unique Darshanas, namely, Vaisheshika and Nyaya. Vaisheshika is expounded by sage Kanada, who is regarded to be the first nuclear scientist in the history of humankind. His theory is known as Peeluvada. Peelu means atom in Vaisheshika Tantra. This Science is known as Padhartha Shastra where concepts of Dharma and Dharmi are expounded. Dharmi means all articles and particles in existence. Dharma means ingredients, qualities, and characteristics of Dharmi. For example, let us try to define Earth (Prithivi). Prithvi (Earth) is Dharmi and gandhavatvam (Smell) is the quality of Prithvi (gandhavatvaà påthivyä lakñaëam). Similarly, if we are to define Aatman, then consciousness becomes Dharma and Aatma becomes Dharmi. As per Vaisheshika (Padartha Shastra) of Kanada, Water (Ap) is Dharmi, and Rasa(taste) becomes it's Dharma. We may give any example from the realm of Science as Science takes the whole material world as one unit where articles and particles exist together. According to Vaisheshika Darshana, Prithvi, Ap, Tejo, Vaayu, Aakasha, Kala, Dik, Aatma, and Manas are the nine Dharmis, ao all these nine are known as Dravya, constituting nine types of Dravyas. The concept of Guna means the quality of Dharmi, say, Roopa (Dharma of Agni) and Rasa (Dharma of Ap). All kinds of forms or norms or characteristics or knowledge are known as Guna of Dharmi. Ingredients, qualities, properties, and characteristics are some shades of words which will be suitable to define Gunas, namely, Roopa, Rasa, Gandha, and Sparsha. We thus enlist 24 types of qualities, characteristics, and properties.
Karma means actions or vibrations. We may elucidate karma as vibrations which are the main characteristic of every atom as famous scientist Fritjof Capra says in his book “Tao of Physics.” Vibration is defined as five types of actions, namely, utkñepaëa apakñepaëa äkuïcana prasäraëa and gamana which can illustrate the Karma. Samanya is a common characteristic from among different atoms and other articles and particles. The word Vishesha means very unique hence the Darshana is known as Vaisheshika. Vishesha means distinct characteristic of the articles and particles because none of the article and/or particle is same as another article or particle. Every article or particle has its own special properties and diversities. Vaividhya (Diversity) is the beauty of this wonderful material world which is something miraculous as per Adi Shankaracharya. He says “manasäpi acintya racanä rüpasya” meaning that this world is so wonderful and awesome that it cannot even be imagined by Manas (mind). Samavaya is the interrelationship or connectivity. Kanada expounded these as six major padharthas. Using these six major padharthas, he expounded Padhartha Vaada. Using his Padhartha Vaada parameter, he could identify this wonderful material world in its entirety. Pardartha Vaada (of Vaisheshika Darshana) is Kaaaada's unique contribution to humankind. Sage Kapila expounds Prakriti and Purusha. Sage Kapila starting with matter dwells deeper into the inner consciousness. Sage Kanada has never rejected the theory of consciousness. As per Kanada, Atman exists and he approves authority of Vedas. Kanada introduced the Science of consciousness as Aatma vaada. The Aatma vaada of Kanada becomes deeper when Kapila defines Aatma as Purusha. With Patanajali expounding his Ishwara vaada, the original Atma vaada of Kanada, passing through Sage Kapila's concepts of Purusha and Prakriti, becomes much more deeper. Sage Patanjali coined the term as Ishwara vaada. Thus, Patanjali says, “kleça karma vipaka äçayaiù aparämåñöaù puruña viçeña éçvaraù” is the statement for the concept of Ishwara. Individual consciousness (Purusha) is very important as per Sage Kapila. Further, this concept of Purusha is universalized and globalized by Sage Patanjali. Maharshi VedaVyasa elucidating in his Brahma Sutra “cetanamätreëa tadätmakatvädi tu auòulomiù,” and thus taking auòulomi's theory to a climax, expounded the universal consciousness which he calls as “Chiti.” Here, the word “Chiti” as in Sat-Chit-Ananda is taken to mean Eternal Existentialism and the Eternal Consciousness and the Eternal Bliss. Thus, the perennial consciousness of Sat-Chit-Ananda is expounded by Maharshi Veda Vyasa. Maharshi Vyasa refers to rishis like AuDulomi, Kashakritsna in his Brahma Sutra. Veda Vyasa mentions about great Rishis of yore who expounded the concept of consciousness.
All six systems, that is, Sankhya-Yoga, Nyaya-Vaisheshika, Purva Mimamsa-Uttara Mimamsa, speak about Ishwara, NirguNa Ishwara-Niraakara Ishwara. Even though Sage Jaimini's theory speaks of karma, but his karma theory is purely based on the concept of Svarga and Ishwara. Sage Jaimini's concept of Svarga is not same concept of mythological svarga which has materialistic basis. Sage Jaimini's concept of “svarga” is that happiness, that ecstasy, that bliss which is not touched by sorrow. Hence, universal concept of Ishwara without human body is expounded by Sage Patanjali. Sage Gautama, the pioneer of Nyaya Shastra also talks about consciousness where he expounds “Pramaanya vaada” by which he means the philosophy of validation (Pramana Vada of Nyaya Darshana). He expounds Pratyaksha, Anumana, Upamana, and Shabda, namely, the Perception, the Inference, the Analogy and the Verbal Testimony. The focus is on inference or Anumana, “anumäna pramäëya vädinaù naiyyäyikaù.” Thus, the Naiyyayikas accepted the authority of Vedas, and hence they support vedic validation. The Naiyyayikas considering inference and other pramanas comprehensively expounded the concept of pramaNa which ultimately helps to establish the science of consciousness (Aatmavaada of Sage Kanada, concept of Pursha and Prakriti of Sage Kapila, concept of Ishvara of Sage Patanjali).
The Shad Darshanas expound in three Ja kaaras, namely, Jagat(world), Jagattatva(Characteristic nature of World), and Jagat antaryaami/Jagadheeshwara or Ishwara (the all-pervading universal consciousness that is Omni Present, Omni Potent, and Omniscient), and Jivatma (as the individual, unliberated consciousness). Thus, Shad Darshanas enumerated entire material world and metaphysical world properly. Jaina Agamas and Buddha Pithakaas are also very much supportive for the concepts of consciousness. Jaina Agama gave time-honored concept of Arhan, which may be understood as Universal Consciousness. The realization of Arhan takes an individual on the path of saakshaatkaara (self-realization) which is (always ascending and ascending further on the chosen path.). Jaina Agama's satata urdhvagamana helps much of uncertainty principle so that their uncertainty principle supporting certainty, Syat, Na syat, and avaktavya. This means the ultimate truth is beyond the words and thus one has to tread the path with probabilities. Buddha's Tripitaka, the Science of consciousness was expounded very well. It is known as Niratma vaada which ultimately ends up in Shunyavaada, that is, Universal Consciousness. The Yogachara school of Buddhism has taken Shunyavada (Niratma vaada) to a deeper level of understanding. What Buddhists term Aalaya vijnana is Aatma Tatva. Both Veda-based and nonVeda-based Darshanas are not philosophies actually. The word philosophy in the parlance of modern science is not proper to describe the Shad Darshanas and Jaina Agamas and Buddha Tripitikas (those 6+2) schools of philosophy originating through Rishi culture, which are schools true science. These Shad Darshanas and Jaina Agamas and Buddha Tripitikas are not just philosophies, probable theories, or assumptions or inferences.
Modern-day philosophies are full of such probable theories and/or assumptions and/or inferences if one reads Cants, Charles Baken and many such great philosophers. Now it is high time that we should think whether we call all these 6+2 branches of Darshanas as Pure Science because they define this wonderful world as three Ja kaaras. The concepts thus far expounded and explained by Indian rishis can be scientifically proved using one's own individual body (Pindanda) as a laboratory in relation to Brahmaanda, the Cosmos. Rishis experimented using their own scientific systems which they proved through probing beyond doubt. The modern-day theories are at best pure sciences but never Darshanas (as expounded by Rishis). Here is a new way of thinking and understanding our Darshanas so that we may start practicing (in order to prove to one's own self) at least a few of the concepts as expounded in them.
And to conclude, the concept of Pure Science in India pervades every aspect of Life and Existence and beyond. For Rishis of India, this Science is not only to be understood at an intellectual level but also very much practicable and hence should be practiced by everyone keeping this task of self-realization as the Ultimate goal of Human existence and Birth by living in Harmony with the Nature within and without.