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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 23-31

Vishesha or Upa Grahonmadas: Various Psychiatric and Neuropsychiatric Conditions

Department of Kayachikitsa, R. B. Ayurvedic Medical College & Hospital, Agra,Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Prasad Mamidi
Department of Kayachikitsa, R. B. Ayurvedic Medical College & Hospital, Agra, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijny.ijoyppp_8_20

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Bhutavidya (Ayurvedic psychiatry) is one among the eight specialties of Ayurveda (an ancient Indian system of medicine). Bhutavidya deals with the diseases (psychiatric or neuropsychiatric) caused by “bhuta” or “graha” (idiopathic factors) and their management. Unmada (broad term which includes various psychiatric conditions) is a disease characterized by deranged mental functions. “Bhutonmada” (psychiatric conditions caused by idiopathic factors) is a type of unmada caused by affliction of “bhuta” or “graha.” Eighteen types of bhutonmada are explained in samhita's (ancient Ayurvedic texts). Previous works have explored these 18 grahonmadas and compared them with various psychiatric and neuropsychiatric conditions. Vishesha or Upa grahonmadas are the subtypes of these 18 grahonmadas, and their description is found only in “Ashtanga sangraha” (Ayurvedic textbook of medicine written by Vriddha Vagbhata). Description of 16 “Vishesha” or “Upa grahonmadas” is available in “Ashtanga sangraha.” Till date, no studies have been conducted on Vishesha grahonmadas, and the present study aims at exploring Vishesha grahonmadas with contemporary psychiatric conditions. Ayurvedic literature related to “Vishesha grahonmadas” has been collected from major classical Ayurvedic texts and from their commentaries. Electronic databases “Google” and “Google Scholar” have been searched to find out the relevant studies using appropriate keywords. Sixteen Vishesha grahonmadas explained in Ashtanga sangraha have shown resemblance with various psychiatric and neuropsychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, schizophrenia, frontotemporal dementia, Tourette's syndrome, extra pyramidal movement disorders, temporal lobe epilepsy, autism, personality disorders, Parkinson's disease, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The contemporary perspective of ancient psychiatric concepts as demonstrated in the present article provides new insights and paves way further studies.

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