|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 96-98
Ayurvediya Bhutavidya Vivechana
Department of Manovigyan evum Manasa roga (Ayurveda Psychology and Psychiatry), Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka, India
|Date of Web Publication
Dr. Govardhan Belaguli
Department of Manovigyan evum Manasa roga (Ayurveda Psychology and Psychiatry), Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan - 573 201, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:
Belaguli G. Ayurvediya Bhutavidya Vivechana. Int J Yoga - Philosop Psychol Parapsychol 2018;6:96-8
Author : Dr. B K Dwivedi
Language : Hindi
Edition : 2009; Editor: Dr. Lakshmidhar Dwivedi
Published by : Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi
Price : Rs. 275/-
Pages : 413 pages
“I was moved by a mentally unstable patient, when he suddenly behaved as if some God invaded him. Going ahead he wore garlands, grandiosely started blessing everyone, and abused those who opposed his act. We were notified by our Professors that, he is an ideal case of 'invasion of Bhuta'. I was left clueless, what was that!! The scenario made me to go in search of the 'Bhuta' concept.” I lacked the critical perceptive of these descriptions. The fair descriptions and minimal analyzation of Bhuta and the branch which deals with it – “Bhutavidya” in Ayurveda literature – gave a divergence in considering the concept logically. The search for the clinical appraisal of these concepts and its understanding gave a least results, providing a lesser significance in the present day of evidence-based appreciation. The need for a work which could erase the misconceptions and which could encourage our perception and applicability toward these concepts was in due.
One such painstaking effort is seen in the book Ayurvediya Bhutavidya Vivechana written by Dr. B K Dwivedi and edited by Dr. Lakshmidhar Dwivedi. According to them, “Bhuta” (demons) is considered as those imperceptible causative agents, who occupy the Manas (mind) and produce various mental disorders. Its clinical presentations are observed through behavioral changes and also through few somatic disorders (Kshaya in Yakshma Roga). The cross sections in Ayurveda literature have the word meaning Bhuta in mainly four different contexts.
- Pancha-Mahabhuta (the fundamentals of Srushti Utpatti)
- Bhuta Kala (past deeds)
- Bhuta (which occupies human body – microorganisms)
- Deva -Yoni Vishesha (those which invades mind and its related attributes).
The current review is about the last two contexts. According to Atharvaveda, Bhuta is of mainly two types: (a) Drishya (can be seen) and (b) Adrishya (cannot be seen), where the first represents the presentations and causative agents in the affected individuals that can be inspected and the later represents those which cannot be investigated. Acharya Sushruta (Father of Surgery) in his treatise (Sushruta Samhita in three chapters) gives a maximum detailed description of these Bhuta as the external idiopathic factors of any mental disorder including a chapter (Amanushopasarga Adhyaya – dealing with para human agents as a cause of psychiatric disorder). Acharya Charaka (Father of Indian Medicine) has a modest explanation on them. He gives a clear-cut idea about this Bhuta as the external causative factors (in Unmada Adhyaya). Astanga Hridaya (a treatise of Acharya Vagbhatta) has an explanation of Bhuta in two chapters (in Uttara Tantra). Acharya Harita describes Bhuta in the third Khanda of Harita Samhita. Acharya Vriddha Vagbhatta has similar opinion to that of Sushruta Samhita, while Bhavaprakasha, Sharangadhara, and Madhava agree the description of Bhuta as per Charaka Samhita.
Bhutavidya or Bhuta Vigyan or Griha Chikitsa (Demonology) is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda. The branch represents the Ayurvediya Manasa roga (Ayurveda Psychology/Psychiatry). This branch also deals with the study of Manas/Chitta (mind) being inflicted by various Bhuta. According to the context, there are nine Bhutas (Deva, Asura, Gandharva, Yaksha, Rakshasa, Pitra, Pishacha, Naga, and Graha).
Both the contributors of the book “Ayurvediya Bhutavidya Vivecana” are the legendary professors from the Department of Maulika Siddhanta from the prestigious Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. The book is published and copyright owned by Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy, Varanasi. The exceptional contents in the book have equipped itself as a prescribed syllabus for postgraduates of Manovigyan Evum Manasa roga (Ayurveda Psychology and Psychiatry) as approved by the Central Council of Indian Medicine, New Delhi.
The book has a main theme of critically analyzing the concepts of Bhuta and Bhutavidya as elucidated in Ayurveda literature. The book has legible printing, feathery weight, and neatly bound by the printers. The intellectual perception by the contributors, the verbal communication in Hindi, the arrangement of nearest word meaning for Ayurveda terms in English, and the schematic representations wherever needed keeps the content straight from the unnecessary and unjustifiable paraphrases which occur while understanding the main theme of the book. The book has ten chapters of detailed descriptions of compiled and analyzed concepts of Bhutavidya and its related aspects.
The first chapter includes assembled introductory points such as understanding the terminology of Bhuta, Bhutavidya, and its related expressions according to different contexts.
The second chapter continues with the origin of the word Bhuta and its relation to physical and mental attributes according to various Veda.
The third chapter has detailed descriptions of Bhuta – its origin, types, characteristic features; Upasarga – its origin, types, and clinical presentations; the physical and mental disorders having etiology of Bhuta; concept of Unmada, its relation with Bhuta, its etiology, and general treatment principles according to different Purana. The chapter is finished with an ending cord of introduction to the concept of Atma according to Ayurveda which gives connectivity to the upcoming chapters.
The fourth chapter deals with the concept of Manas – its quality, area of functioning, seat/location, relation, and input in the sensory and motor perception (Indriya Panchaka – five fives of perception); relationship between Atma and Manas; concept of Punarjanma according to Ayurveda.
The fifth chapter gives a convincing, detailed depiction of those functions which are specifically done by Manas.
The detail explanation of the special three functions occupied by Manas; (a) Pragyopastambha (Dhee, Dhriti, Smriti), (b) Trivarga (Dharma, Artha, Kama), and (c) Tisreshana (Prana, Dhana, Paraloka) is found in the sixth chapter.
The seventh chapter includes the contexts of attributes of Manas (Satvika, Rajasika, and Tamasika) and descriptions on types of Sattva and its relation to Manas.
The eighth chapter expresses the pathological state of Manas, its causative factors, and the mental disorders developed and manifested from them.
The ninth chapter details with the broad description Bhutavigyana or Bhutavidya. This includes clinical applicability and understanding of the concepts of Bhuta – its special characteristics and qualities, aetiology, types; disorders like Unmada – its etiology by invasion of Bhuta, types of Unmada based on the clinical presentation of invaded Bhuta, prognosis and detailed treatment principles, usage of various therapies, medicines, and diet.
The last chapter describes the concept, types, etiology, and clinical presentation with a few treatment protocols for the disorders of Balagraha. Few controversies regarding the similarities and the dissimilarities regarding Bhutavidya with Balagraha is solved in this chapter.
The appendix of the book comprises mental and physical status examination, Sattva – Prakriti Pareeksha, history-taking and a replica of case sheet, and also a model for treatment protocol according to the guidelines of Ayurveda.
At the end of analyzing the hypothesis of Bhuta and Bhutavidya in the entire book, it clearly raises an answer for its empirical application which can be considered under Demonology or Parapsychology as a bridge from ancient textual knowledge to modern view. The diverse insights on Bhuta and its related concepts from various Indian backgrounds are seen as a compilation in the book, and the lack of this type of hoarded documents which is hardly found in other science makes the volume exceptional for a reader even though the book was published in 2009. With the expectation of a thoroughly revised edition of this book, the present volume sets a base as a cognitive treat in understanding the fundamental areas of Bhuta and Bhutavidya where contemporary insights find difficult to reach. It is recommended that with the help of these vivid metaphors in the book, one can set few further studies to assess its clinical utility.
The credit goes to the contributors of the book Dr. B.K. Dwivedi and Dr. Lakshmidhar Dwivedi, who have worked with enormous determination and fieldwork in publishing their work “Ayurvediya Bhutavidya Vivecana.” The constant support of Dr. Prasanna N Rao Professor and the Principal; Dr. Suhas Kumar Shetty, Professor and Head; Dr. Savitha HP, Associate Professor; from the Department of Manovigyan evum Manasa roga (Ayurveda Psychology and Psychiatry) of SDM College of Ayurveda, Hassan is acknowledged with compliment who motivated me in every form to take up the work.